The result was the text that is accepted to this day throughout the Muslim world. Egypt, for example, after ousting in 1952 a royal dynasty going back to the 1800s and installing Gamal Abdel Nasser as president, forced the British to relinquish control of the Suez Canal and withdraw from the country. The scholars at the House of Wisdom, unlike their modern counterparts, did not "specialize." As Thabit's knowledge of Greek and Syriac was unrivaled, he contributed enormously to the translation of Greek scientific writing and also produced some seventy original works - in mathematics, astronomy, astrology, ethics, mechanics, music, medicine, physics, philosophy, and the construction of scientific instruments. The hajj is at once a worldwide migration of the faithful and a remarkable spiritual happening that, according to Islamic tradition, dates back to Abraham, was affirmed by Muhammad, and then, by Muhammad's own pilgrimage, systematized into rites which are simple in execution but rich it in meaning. For twenty years, especially during the rule of Sultan Malikshah, he was the true custodian of the Seljuk state. ... unbiased information on the Middle East & North Africa region. Life section is all about Society, Art, Culture, History, Sports, Food, Music and much more. In the meantime, the Mongols, like so many of the peoples who had come into contact with Islam, had begun to embrace it. Most historians accept that Islam originated in Mecca and Medina at the start of the 7th century CE. Yet it is, in the deeply personal terms of a Muslim, something more as well. By the eleventh century, however, a small pocket of Christian resistance had begun to grow, and under Alfonso VI Christian forces retook Toledo. The Fatimids built the Mosque of al-Azhar in Cairo - from which developed al-Azhar University, now the oldest university in the world and perhaps the most influential Islamic school of higher learning. Because the religious, political, and military achievements of the Islamic period loom so large in the history of the world, the extraordinary cultural, scientific, technological, and commercial achievements are frequently obscured or overlooked. Western forms have been adapted as much as they have been adopted, and healthy hybrid forms and concepts abound. Systematized in the second and third centuries of the Muslim era (the eighth and ninth centuries A.D.), the shari'ah later developed into four major schools of jurisprudence: the Hanafi School, founded by Abu Hanifah; the Maliki School, founded by Malik ibn Anas; the Shafi'i School, founded by Muhammad al-Shafi'i; and the Hanbali School founded by Ahmad ibn Hanbal. The IslamiCity site may occasionally contain copyrighted material the use of which may not always have been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. Islam appeared in the form of a book: the Quran. One was square and angular and was called kufic (after the town of Kufa in Iraq, though it was in use well before the town was founded). Until that time the Egyptian, Greek, and other cultures used their own numerals in a manner similar to that of the Romans. The famous theologian al-Ghazali whose greatest work, the Revival of the Sciences of Religion, was a triumph of Sunni theology taught for a time at the nizamiyah schools at Baghdad and at Nishapur. The shift in power to Damascus, the Umayyad capital city, was to have profound effects on the development of Islamic history. Chroniclers wrote extensively about such conquests, but little on dress matters. At issue, essentially, was the legitimacy of 'Ali's caliphate. The month of fasting is also joyous. By defeating Egypt, then still part of the Ottoman Empire, Napoleon exposed the inner weaknesses, both military and administrative, of the sultans, shattered the myth of Ottoman power, and inaugurated more than 150 years of direct political intervention by the West. The Middle East is also the heartland of religious scholarship and tradition, … In the sixteenth century three Muslim empires are at or close to the pinnacle of their power and brilliance: the Ottomans under Suleiman the Magnificent, Safavid Persia under Shah Abbas the Great, and Mogul India under Akbar the Great. A Quranic verse in the kufic script, for example, may be written so that it forms the picture of a mosque and minarets. The new mathematical principle on which the Arabic numerals were based greatly simplified arithmetic. In the thirteenth century still another threat to the Muslim world appeared in the land beyond the Oxus: the Mongols. The first pillar, the profession of faith, is the repetition of the statement, "There is no god but God; Muhammad is the Messenger of God" - in Arabic the euphonious "La ilaha illa Allah; Muhammadun rasul Allah." On the contrary, the Muslims permitted Christians and Jews to practice their own faith and numerous conversions to Islam were the result of exposure to a faith that was simple and inspiring. 'Umar adopted this attitude in administrative matters as well. This tax is often levied and disbursed by the state, but in the absence of a government collecting system it must be disbursed by the taxable Muslims themselves. However, the sharifs of Mecca and Medina are virtually independent. In relation to modern history there will be an emphasis on anti-colonial and anti-imperialist movements and struggles. The important office of wazir or vizier, chief counselor, may well have developed from Sassanid models. Written in noble language, this Holy Text has done more than move multitudes to tears and ecstasy; it has also, for almost fourteen hundred years, illuminated the lives of Muslims with its eloquent message of uncompromising monotheism, human dignity, righteous living, individual responsibility, and social justice. This revised and updated collection of essays by a leading Western expert on Islam and the Middle East gives essential background to the present Middle Eastern conflicts and their interaction, through mutual misunderstanding, with Western conceptions. These successes, however, were qualified by serious administrative weaknesses. Click on these beautiful images & start exploring the theme/value behind it. It was under the 'Abbasids, however, that calligraphy first began to be systematized. Bayt al-Hikmah was a remarkable assemblage of scholar-translators who undertook a Herculean task: to translate into Arabic all of what had survived of the philosophical and scientific tradition of the ancient world and incorporate it into the conceptual framework of Islam. 30 For example, virtually all of the literature on the social and economic history of Turkey, Iran, and the Arab East has appeared since Book Six was written. Yet these advances were, in fact, of enduring significance to mankind as a whole. Here, you will find quick shortcuts to major topics & hubs under IslamiCity. Photo: Golden domes and gold topped minarets highlight the mosque of al-Kazimayn in Baghdad, built in the early sixteenth century. Photo: Medieval Muslims regarded the Great Mosque built by the Umayyads in Damascus as one of the wonders of the world. This is a great piece of knowledge I ever have seen Ma.Shaa.Allah. There were also, however, organizations which united the diverse peoples. As a result the city was dominated by powerful merchant families among whom the men of Quraysh were preeminent. In the first place, the Muslim forces, outnumbered three to one, routed the Meccans. After an inconclusive siege, the Meccans were forced to retire. Fatimid merchants traded with Afghanistan and China and tried to divert some of Baghdad's Arabian Gulf shipping to the Red Sea. Later, in emulation, Italy in 1911 seized Libya. The text of the Quran was delivered orally by the Prophet Muhammad to his followers as it was revealed to him. The Zionist claim to Palestine was mainly based on the fact that there had been periods of Hebrew rule in Canaan and the land west of the Jordan River between 1300 B.C. In 1824 Mahmud II finally broke the power of the Janissaries, brought in German advisers to restructure the army, and launched a modernization program. In medicine they experimented with diet, drugs, surgery, and anatomy, and in chemistry, an outgrowth of alchemy, isolated and studied a wide variety of minerals and compounds. Photo: Hajjis spend one night camped at Muzdalifah between 'Arafat and Mina. After extending Islam throughout the Middle East, the Arabs began to assimilate the cultures of the peoples they had subdued. Both believe in the Quran and the Prophet, both follow the same principles of religion and both observe the same rituals. During the Golden Age Muslim scholars also made important and original contributions to mathematics, astronomy, medicine, and chemistry. One reason is that the cursive nature of the Arabic script and certain of its other peculiarities made its adaptation to printing difficult and delayed the introduction of the printing press, so that the Arab world continued for some centuries after the time of Gutenberg to rely on handwriting for the production of books (especially the Quran) and of legal and other documents. It covers day to day World Affairs, Politics & News. Faithful Muslims, therefore, submit unreservedly to God's will and obey His precepts as set forth in the Quran and transmitted to mankind by Muhammad, His Messenger. This was the Hijrah - anglicized as Hegira - usually, but inaccurately, translated as "Flight" - from which the Muslim era is dated. The report may be read in conjunction with the CMI reports on political Islam in South Asia (Knudsen 2002a) and the annotated bibliography on Palestinian Islamist movements (Bangstad 2002). After the fall of Constantinople, and during the sixteenth century, the Ottoman system evolved the centralized administrative framework by which the sultans maintained effective control over the extraordinarily diverse peoples in the vast empire. Photo: Pool in the Patio de los Arrayanes reflects the grandeur of the incomparable Alhambra. After the prophet Muhammad’s death in … Photo: Books of fables, often illustrated, served a dual purpose to instruct and to entertain. After its development in Turkey, it spread to the Arab countries and is in use today for formal documents and also as architectural decoration. Called "a forest of olive trees," Tunisia exported so much olive oil that its port of Sfax was called "the port of oil.". The First Crusade began in 1095 after the Byzantines - threatened by Seljuk power- appealed to Pope Urban II for military aid. To cement social bonds further, Islam has instituted zakat al-fitr, an obligatory levy in the form of provisions or money for the poor, so that they can share in the joy of 'Id al-Fitr. Everything under IslamiCity is categorized under the major hubs you see in this panel. But at the beginning, when its institutions were responsive to the needs of the people and the state, the Ottoman Empire was a model of administrative efficiency. Have a blessed Ramadan! This policy was to prove successful everywhere. Photo: The basmalah ("In the name of God the Merciful the Compassionate" - the opening words of the Quran) is here done in an elaborate thuluth script with the letters joined so that the entire phrase is written without lifting the pen from the paper. During the second Mongol invasion, Tamerlane had met and very nearly annihilated another rising power: the Ottomans. One of the basic meanings of jabr in Arabic is "bonesetting," and al-Khwarazmi used it as a graphic description of one of the two operations he uses for the solution of quadratic equations. It's all color coded. if ( blp_cancelWowEffect || blp_isSafari ) { // blp_isSafari vars comes from the global js variable defined at blp-js-library.js According to one tradition it was in this area that Satan urged Abraham to disobey God's command to sacrifice his son Ishmael. One day, as he sat in the cave, he heard a voice, later identified as that of the Angel Gabriel, which ordered him to: Recite: In the name of thy Lord who created, Created man from a clot of blood. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. Every other Friday, we try to feature a new theme which will uplift our spirituality. There they faced a young man called Salah al-Din (Saladin) who had founded still another new dynasty, the Ayyubids, and who was destined to blunt the thrust of the Crusaders' attack. Photo: Another basmalah in ornamental thuluth script is written in the shape of an oval. The orphan was consigned to the care of his grandfather, the head of the clan of Hashim. Herzl's writings and personal advocacy led to the formal development of Zionism, a political movement dedicated to the creation of such a state, and eventually focusing on Palestine. After Muhammad had preached publicly for more than a decade, the opposition to him reached such a high pitch that, fearful for their safety, he sent some of his adherents to Ethiopia, where the Christian ruler extended protection to them, the memory of which has been cherished by Muslims ever since. They collected and corrected previous astronomical data, built the world's first observatory, and developed the astrolabe, an instrument that was once called "a mathematical jewel." In the eighth century, however, they had a more convenient source: the works of Greek scientists stored in libraries in Constantinople and other centers of the Byzantine empire. Fax: 617-253-9406 Even where Arabic did not become the national language, it became the language of religion wherever Islam became established, since the Quran is written in Arabic, the Profession of Faith is to be spoken in Arabic, and five times daily the practicing Muslim must say his prayers in Arabic. The Alhambra was begun in 1238 by Muhammad ibn al-Ahmar who, to buy safety for his people when King Ferdinand of Aragon laid siege to Granada, once rode to Ferdinand's tent and humbly offered to become the king's vassal in return for peace. They moved the capital of the empire from Syria to Iraq, where they built a new capital, Baghdad, from which, during the next five centuries, they would influence many of the main events of Islamic history. The sunnah - which supplements and complements the Quran, the Word of God, and is next to it in importance - embodies the meticulously documented acts and sayings of the Prophet recorded in a body of writings called the hadith. Photo: Cursive script on Quran stand of wood, dated 1360, a fine example of Mongol art from western Turkestan. The other, called naskhi, was more rounded and cursive and was used for letters, business documents, and wherever speed rather than elaborate formalism was needed. Photo: The Crusader castle at Sidon in Lebanon was abandoned after the final defeat of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. It is an extremely graceful and very decorative script, with strong diagonal flourishes, though less easy to read than some other styles. At the Battle of the Trench, also known as the Battle of the Confederates, the Muslims scored a signal victory by introducing a new defense. Photo: Jerusalem's Dome of the Rock, built in 691-692. ", Meanwhile, outside Granada, the Christian kings waited. Murad II was succeeded by Mehmed (Muhammad) II, called "The Conqueror" because on May 29, 1453, after his artillery finally breached Constantinople's massive walls, the city fell. Thirdly, one of the allied tribes which had pledged support to the Muslims in the Battle of Badr, but had then proved lukewarm when the fighting started, was expelled from Medina one month after the battle. As scientific research and translation of medical texts from India and possibly even China expanded the earlier pharmacopoeia, ingredients for medicines were brought from all over the known world and also reexported. The Muslim legacy included advances in technology too. The 'Abbasids, therefore, were forced to develop extensive and complicated patterns of trade. Islamic history from 1683 to the present: reform, dependency, and recovery. The destruction by the Mongols of many of these achievements and of much of what the Muslims had accomplished by the end of the Golden Age was a tragic loss for the world as a whole. In it he stresses the responsibilities of the ruler: for example, if a man is killed because a bridge is in disrepair, it is the fault of the ruler, for he should make it his business to apprise himself of the smallest negligences of his underlings. One of the most moving acts of faith in Islam, the hajj is, for those Muslims who can get to Mecca, the peak of their religious life, a moment when they satisfy a deep yearning to behold at least once the Ka'bah - the House of God and the physical focus of a life time of prayer. Photo: In the ceremony of sa'y they reenact the search for water by Hagar, wife of the patriarch Abraham. By skillful preparation, this organization rallied to its cause many mutually hostile groups in Khorasan and Iraq and proclaimed Abu al-'Abbas caliph. It makes us a community. I never saw such a great article like this. To obtain them, of course, the Muslims had to export too, often using the imports from one region as exports to another: pearls from the Gulf, livestock from the Arabian Peninsula (particularly Arabian horses and camels), and - one of the chief products - cloth. The preserving of them wearies Him not; Praise be to God, Lord of the Worlds; Impressed by Thabit's learning, Muhammad personally presented him to the caliph, who was in turn so impressed that he appointed Thabit court astrologer. In relentless succession they had retaken Toledo, Cordoba, and Seville. As the exact pronunciation was important - and learning it took years - special schools were founded to be sure that no error would creep in as the traditional chanting methods were handed down. 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