In the early 1980s, the Falls of the Ohio National Wildlife Conservation Area was established at Clarksville, Indiana. Beaver Falls, PA 15010. At the confluence, the Ohio is considerably bigger than the Mississippi, measured by long-term mean discharge. The economic connection of the Ohio Country to the East was significantly increased in 1818 when the National Road being built westward from Cumberland, Maryland reached Wheeling, Virginia (now West Virginia), providing an easier overland connection from the Potomac River to the Ohio River. Many small rivers were altered or abandoned after the upper Ohio River formed. Among rivers wholly or mostly in the United States, it is the second largest by discharge volume, the tenth longest and has the eighth largest drainage basin. Kentucky brought suit against Indiana in the early 1980s because of the building of the never-completed Marble Hill Nuclear Power Plant in Indiana, which would have discharged its waste water into the river. The ports and harbors situated on the Ohio River are shown on the map and port index by country table below. Through its largest tributary, the Tennessee River, the basin includes several states of the southeastern U.S. The lake is within a 3,300-acre county park off Route 50 between Hickory and Avella; go 2.5 miles west of intersection of Routes 18 and 50. The movement across the Allegheny Mountains of British settlers and the claims of the area near modern-day Pittsburgh led to conflict with the French, who had forts in the Ohio River Valley. The overflowing lake carved through the separating hill and connected the rivers. For thousands of years, Native Americans used the river as a major transportation and trading route. [28] More escaping slaves, estimated in the thousands, made their perilous journey north to freedom across the Ohio River than anywhere else across the north-south frontier. From Louisville, the river loses depth very gradually until its confluence with the Mississippi at Cairo, Illinois, where it has an approximate depth of 19 feet (6 m). Notes on the State of Virginia, "The Winding River Home: Pellissippi State researches the meaning of 'Pellissippi, "Presenter re-enacts 17th-century man's journey through Kanawha Valley", "The Planting of civilization in western Pennsylvania", "Bird's Eye View of Cumberland, Maryland 1906", "Put in Master's Pocket: Interstate Slave Trading and the Black Appalachian Diaspora", "Crossing the "Dark Line": Fugitive Slaves and the Underground Railroad in Louisville and North Central Kentucky (excerpt)", "Report: Ohio River most polluted in U.S.", "Ohio River again tops list for industrial pollution", "The Lawyer Who Became DuPont's Worst Nightmare", "Water Data Report: 07022000 Mississippi River at Thebes, IL Summary Statistics", "Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution", U.S. Geological Survey: PA stream gauging stations, Drafting and ratification of Constitution, Office of the Director of National Intelligence, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ohio_River&oldid=992699239, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Miami-Illinois-language text, Articles containing Shawnee-language text, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from The American Cyclopaedia, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from The American Cyclopaedia with a Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Wikipedia articles incorporating citation to the NSRW, Wikipedia articles incorporating citation to the NSRW with an wstitle parameter, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from Collier's Encyclopedia, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 56.5: Significant flooding of California occurs. Both Illinois and Indiana have long since changed their laws to allow riverboat casinos to be permanently docked, with Illinois changing in 1999 and Indiana in 2002. Because the river is the southern border of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, it was part of the border between free states and slave states in the years before the American Civil War. A north-flowing river was temporarily dammed by natural forces southwest of present-day Louisville, creating a large lake until the dam burst. In winter, it regularly freezes over at Pittsburgh but rarely farther south toward Cincinnati and Louisville. From Mapcarta, the free map. The need for access to the port of New Orleans by settlers in the Ohio Valley is one of the factors that led to the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. [14] The Teays River was the largest of these rivers. Beginning at the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers nesr Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, it runs southwest, ending at the Mississippi River on the Illinois and Missouri borders. The Ohio River Scenic Byway in Indiana is comprised of the following segments totaling 302.38 miles. In the five centuries before European conquest, the Mississippian culture built numerous regional chiefdoms and major earthwork mounds in the Ohio Valley, such as Angel Mounds near Evansville, Indiana, as well as in the Mississippi Valley and the Southeast. Shows river course from New Martinsville, W.Va. to Pittsburgh. [2] The river flows through or along the border of six states, and its drainage basin includes parts of 14 states. These forts played a dominant role in the French and Indian War, Northwest Indian War and pioneering settlement of Ohio Country. The south-flowing Marietta River (no longer in existence) ended between the present-day cities. a) Authority of Lockmasters The lockmaster shall be charged with the immediate control and management of … It is the third largest river by discharge volume in the United States and the largest tributary by volume of the north-south flowing Mississippi River that divides the eastern from western United States. It is 548 miles as the crow flies between Cairo and Pittsburgh, but 981 miles by water. [30] The river again ranked as the most polluted in 2013 and has been the most polluted river since at least 2001, according to the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO). The Allegheny River, left, and Monongahela River join to form the Ohio River at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the largest metropolitan area on the river. The Ohio River is a climatic transition area, as its water runs along the periphery of the humid continental and humid subtropical climate areas. The number in parentheses after the port's location corresponds to the numbered icons on the map. [13] For thousands of years, Native Americans used the river as a major transportation and trading route. The lower Ohio River just below Louisville is obstructed by rapids known as the Falls of the Ohio where the water level falls 26 feet (7.9 m) in 2 miles (3.2 km) and is impassible for navigation. They killed travelers, stealing their goods and scuttling their boats. Fears that Louisville's transshipment industry would collapse proved ill-founded: the increasing size of steamships and barges on the river meant that the outdated locks could only service the smallest vessels until well after the Civil War. [4] European discovery of the Ohio River may be attributed to English explorers from Virginia in the latter half of the 17th century. Known as butternuts, they formed the dominant culture in the southern portions of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois with a society that was primarily Southern in nature. Its waters connected communities. Before there were cities, there were colonial forts. Ohio River Major Rivers of the United States Map. The times have been expressed by 20th-century novelists as well, such as the Nobel Prize-winning Toni Morrison, whose novel Beloved was adapted as a film of the same name. + View larger map Big & Little Darby Creeks There are many large tributaries that give the ohio river its size. [34] The water depth predictions are relative to each local flood plain based upon predicted rainfall in the Ohio River basin in five reports as follows: The water levels for the Ohio River from Smithland Lock and Dam to Cairo, Illinois, are predicted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Lower Mississippi River Forecast Center.[35]. Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, the bestselling novel that fueled abolitionist work, was the best known of the anti-slavery novels that portrayed such escapes across the Ohio. [26][27] Before and during the Civil War, the Ohio River was called the "River Jordan" by slaves crossing it to escape to freedom in the North via the Underground Railroad. [Map of the Ohio River from Fort Pitt. Louisville, Kentucky, The deepest point of the Ohio River is a scour hole just below Cannelton locks and dam (river mile 720.7). Short-lived special purpose forts included Fort Steuben (Ohio), Fort Finney (Indiana), Fort Finney (Ohio) and Fort Gower (Ohio). The Ohio River is a 981 miles long river that is found within the region of Laurentia in the US. Tennessee: all but a small part in the extreme west drained directly by the Mississippi, and a very small area in the southeastern corner which is drained by the, Ohio: 80% (all except a northern strip bordering Lake Erie, and the northwest corner), This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 17:17. [11][12] In his original draft of the Land Ordinance of 1784, Thomas Jefferson proposed a new state called "Pelisipia", to the south of the Ohio River, which would have included parts of present-day Eastern Kentucky, Virginia and West Virginia.[11]. Whether clinging to the shores of the river, or linking farms and historic river communities, the Ohio River Scenic Byway is the common thread joining a geographically broad and culturally diverse region together. This provided a much-needed export route for goods from the west, since the trek east over the Appalachian Mountains was long and arduous. Where the Ohio joins the Mississippi is the lowest elevation in the state of Illinois, at 315 feet (96 m). The upper Ohio River formed when one of the glacial lakes overflowed into a south-flowing tributary of the Teays River. Ohio River Water Trail Map & Guide . Where the river was narrow, it was the way to freedom for thousands of slaves escaping to the North, many helped by free blacks and whites of the Underground Railroad resistance movement. The Commission also noted mercury pollution as an ongoing concern, citing a 500% increase in mercury discharges between 2007 and 2013. [22] In 1774 the Quebec Act restored the land east of the Mississippi River and north of the Ohio River to Quebec, in effect making the Ohio the southern boundary of Canada. In pencil: Montresor, 1776. The middle Ohio River formed in a manner similar to formation of the upper Ohio River. Searchable listings of Ohio River hotels, motels, resorts, bed & breakfast, and more. Scale ca. The Ohio River forms its border with West Virginia in the southeast and Kentucky in the south. There, some continued on up the Missouri River, some up the Mississippi, and some farther west over land routes. It is (980 miles) (1,557 km) in length. [7][8], Native Americans, including the Lenni Lenape and Iroquois, considered the Ohio and Allegheny rivers as the same, as is suggested by a New York State road sign on Interstate 86 that refers to the Allegheny River also as Ohi:yo';[9] the Geographic Names Information System lists O-hee-yo and O-hi-o as variant names for the Allegheny. From there, it forms the border between West Virginia and Ohio, upstream of Wheeling, West Virginia. T, where in flows into the Mississippi River. Similarly, in the 1990s, Kentucky challenged Illinois' right to collect taxes on a riverboat casino docked in Metropolis, citing its own control of the entire river. The bedrock of the Ohio Valley was mostly set during this time. Toll-Free: 800-342-8192. [14] Its waters connected communities. The largest immediate drop in water level is below the McAlpine Locks and Dam at the Falls of the Ohio at Louisville, Kentucky, where flood stage is reached when the water reaches 23 feet (7 m) on the lower gauge. Text printed on separate sheet attached to main sheet at bottom. Ohio river on a map. Exploration of the territory and trade with the Indians in the region near the Forks brought British colonials from both Pennsylvania and Virginia across the mountains, and both colonies claimed the territory. Where the river serves as a boundary between states today, Congress designated the entire river to belong to the states on the east and south, i.e., West Virginia and Kentucky at the time of admission to the Union, that were divided from Virginia. Indiana's Ohio River Scenic Byway is a winding, hilly route follows the Ohio River. Its current gentle, waters clear, and bosom smooth and unbroken by rocks and rapids, a single instance only excepted. Eventually the upper and middle sections combined to form what is essentially the modern Ohio River. The natural depth of the river varied from about 3 to 20 feet (0.91 to 6.10 m). Major river in the midwestern United States, The widest point on the Ohio River is just north of. The river had great significance in the history of the Native Americans, as numerous civilizations formed along its valley. The Ohio River drains to the Mississippi River which flows to the Gulf of Mexico on the Atlantic Ocean. [23] However, the Treaty of Paris (1783) gave the entire Ohio Valley to the United States. Ohio River above Cairo, IL and its tributaries. at least 25,000 and among the 10 largest in the state, and whose municipal boundary comes within less than a mile of the river. Direct water travel the length of the river is obstructed by the Falls of the Ohio just below Louisville, Kentucky. The Ohio River is a naturally shallow river that was artificially deepened by a series of dams. The Ohio River has 9 ports and harbors. Traversing the lush hills and farmlands of southern Indiana and paralleling the mighty Ohio River, the Ohio River Scenic Byway marks a time-worn and history-rich corridor that has profoundly influenced the people and communities through which it passes. After reaching the mouth of the Ohio, settlers would travel north on the Mississippi River to St. Louis, Missouri. The colonial charter for Virginia defined its territory as extending to the north shore of the Ohio, so that the riverbed was "owned" by Virginia. For a brief time, until 1851, it was the world's largest suspension bridge. Largely rural, they shipped much of their produce along the river to ports such as This conflict was called the French and Indian War, and would merge into the global Anglo-French struggle, the Seven Years' War. Cincinnati.[25]. Therefore, commercial maritime traffic, i.e., tow boats with barges and passenger vessels, have the ability, and authority, to utilize any and all of the Ohio River for navigation. Only Illinois, among the border states, has no significant cities on the river. [32], The Ohio River is heavily industrialized and populated and sees traffic from large barge cargoes carrying oil, steel and other industrial goods. The section of the river that runs southwest from Pittsburgh to Cairo, Illinois is around tens of thousands of years old. Although such boats cruised on the Ohio River in an oval pattern up and down, the state of Kentucky soon protested. Use, Administration, and Navigation 207.300 Ohio River, above Cairo, IL, and their tributaries; use, administration, and navigation. Prior to that event, the north-flowing Steubenville River (no longer in existence) ended between New Martinsville and Paden City, West Virginia. Carl Perkins Bridge in Portsmouth, Ohio with Ohio River and Scioto River tributary on right. The route offers a pleasant escape from suburban concerns as it passes villages, well-kept barns, vineyards, and orchards. The 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix opened Kentucky to colonial settlement and established the Ohio River as a southern boundary for American Indian territory. [31], The Ohio River was polluted with hundreds of thousands of pounds of PFOA, a fluoride-based chemical used in making teflon, among other things, by the DuPont chemical company from an outflow pipe at its Parkersburg, West Virginia, facility for several decades beginning in the 1950s. [33] The Ohio River flow is higher than that of the Mississippi River so hydrologically, the Ohio River is the main stream of the river system. The floodwaters enlarged the small Marietta valley to a size more typical of a large river. Title from Peter Force's catalog of manuscript maps. During the American Revolution, in 1776 the British military engineer John Montrésor created a map of the river showing the strategic location of Fort Pitt, including specific navigational information about the Ohio River's rapids and tributaries in that area. Relief shown by hachures. See our state high points map to learn about Campbell Hill at 1,550 feet - the highest point in Ohio. 1:700,000. The name "Ohio" comes from the Seneca, Ohi:yo', lit. Detailed topographic maps and aerial photos of Ohio are available in the Geology.com store. The entire Ohio River is a federally regulated waterway. Before the river was created, large parts of North America were covered by water forming a saltwater lake about 200 miles across and 400 miles in length. [10], An earlier Miami-Illinois language name was also applied to the Ohio River, Mosopeleacipi ("river of the Mosopelea" tribe). Virginian Englishman Abraham Wood's trans-Appalachian expeditions between 1654 and 1664;[15] Frenchman Robert de La Salle's putative Ohio expedition of 1669;[16] and two expeditions of Virginians sponsored by Colonel Wood: the Batts and Fallam expedition of 1671,[17] and the Needham and Arthur expedition of 1673-74. The word “Ohio” originated from the Seneca language of the Seneca people. Trading boats and ships traveled south on the Mississippi to New Orleans, and sometimes beyond to the Gulf of Mexico and other ports in the Americas and Europe. Cross Creek Lake. "Good River". The Ohio River Scenic Byway in Indiana is comprised of the following segments totaling 302.38 miles: The U.S. Supreme Court held that Kentucky's jurisdiction (and, implicitly, that of West Virginia) extended only to the low-water mark of 1793 (important because the river has been extensively dammed for navigation, so that the present river bank is north of the old low-water mark.) This map shows the course of the Ohio from Fort Pitt, site of present-day Pittsburgh, to what is now New Martinsville, West Virginia. Thus Wheeling Island, the largest inhabited island in the Ohio River, belongs to West Virginia, although it is closer to the Ohio shore than to the West Virginia shore. The Ohio River is a left (east) and largest tributary by volume of the Mississippi River in the United States. The Ohio River is a 981-mile (1,579 km) long river in the United States. Many cities got their start at or adjacent to the forts. This is a complete list of current bridges and other crossings of the Ohio River from the Mississippi River at Cairo, Illinois upstream to the split into the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Use our easy Lodging Search to find exactly the type of accommodation you are looking for at the right price. This is a generalized topographic map of Ohio. a) Authority of Lockmasters The lockmaster shall be charged with the immediate control and management of … It is the source of drinking water for three million people.[3]. This Ohio River map begins in Pittsburgh, PA (where the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers meet) and ends at Cairo IL. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers improvements were expanded again in the 1960s, forming the present-day McAlpine Locks and Dam. Along the banks of the Ohio are some of the largest cities in their respective states:[note 1] Pittsburgh, the largest city on the river and second-largest city in Pennsylvania; Cincinnati, the third-largest city in Ohio; Louisville, the largest city in Kentucky; Evansville, the third-largest city in Indiana; Owensboro, the fourth-largest city in Kentucky; and three of the five largest cities in West Virginia—Huntington (second), Parkersburg (fourth), and Wheeling (fifth). The movement of glaciers during the earliest ice ages the present day river drainages of the Kanawha, Sandy, Kentucky, Green, Cumberland and Tennessee rivers northward created the Ohio system and the course of early tributaries of the Ohio River, including the Monongahela and the Allegheny rivers, were set. Click on the yellow port icons for more information on that port. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, and the tenth most densely populated. However, the river's deepest point is 168 feet (51 m) on the western side of Louisville, Kentucky. Cincinnati skyline showing the John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge to Covington, Kentucky. The river had great significance in the history of the Native Americans, as numerous civilizations formed along its valley. Ohio River, East Pete Rose Way, Lytle Park Historic District, Mount Adams, Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, 45202, USA (39.09323-84.50933). From there, it flows northwest through Allegheny and Beaver counties, before making an abrupt turn to the south-southwest at the West Virginia–Ohio–Pennsylvania triple-state line (near East Liverpool, Ohio; Chester, West Virginia; and Ohioville, Pennsylvania). The combined Allegheny-Ohio river is 1,310 miles (2,110 km) long and carries the largest volume of water of any tributary of the Mississippi. Use administration and navigation. The river then follows a roughly southwest and then west-northwest course until Cincinnati, before bending to a west-southwest course for most of its length. Fortunately, the bridge was not blown up during the American Civil War. The discovery and traversal of the Ohio River by Europeans admits of several possibilities, all in the latter half of the 17th century. The new large river subsequently drained glacial lakes and melting glaciers at the end of the ice ages. 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