The commoner of the two, the smooth sow-thistle, Sonchus oleraceus has leaves that are weakly and softly spiny, and usually deeply lobed, while those of the rough sow-thistle Sonchus asper are more aggressively spiny, less lobed, or unlobed, and the upper surface is shiny green. Sonchus asper (Spiny sowthistle), belonging to the Asteraceae, is a problematic weed in grain crops, orchards as well as turf (Cho et al., 2019). It is not frost tender. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. They are also a good animal feed. In a garden setting, be careful not to let this plant go to seed. It has a short taproot, and deeply lobed leaves. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees, hoverflies. [12], Species of flowering plant in the daisy family Asteraceae, De la Barra, N. 1997. Brit. S. asper and S. oleraceus are applied worldwide in folk medicine as stomachic, aperitive and diuretic. Sonchus asper ← → Synonyms (former Scientific Names): Sonchus nymanii . Humbert, H. 1923. The genus Sonchus includes approximately 60 species, and three of them have become common weeds throughout the world. They then alternate on stems. Image of flower, yellow, nature - 109036857 The stem is 1-3 feet in height, hollow, glabrous, with prominent longitudinal ribs. Distinguishing Features. Reconstrucción y Evolución del Paisaje Vegetal Autóctono de la Zona Urbana y Peri-urbana de la Ciudad de Cochabamba i–v, 1–174. The basal leaves form a rosette that may not be present at flowering. pungens can be found especially in urban areas. The blooming period can occur from late spring to early fall, and usually lasts about a month for a colony of plants. The root system consists of a stout taproot. It has a short taproot, and deeply lobed leaves. Pl. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. PLANT PART USED: Leaves, stems, juice, root. The leaves are cauline and basal. Sonchus asperbelongs to the family Asteraceae commonly known as Peeli dudhi in Hindi and Prickly sow thistle in English. The leaves are alternate, glabrous, oblong to lanceolate in outline, with lobed and prickly toothed margins. Common sow thistle has hollow stems that exude latex if damaged. The upper leaves are more likely to be entire or have shallow lobes. Each floret is replaced by an achene with a tuft of silky white hairs. The leaves are consumed raw as a salad or cooked as a spinach. suppressing S. asper and S. arvensis in Canada. N.C. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Gayana, Botany 42: 1–157. The proximate composition, as well as the content of mineral elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn), fatty acids, vitamin C, carotenoids and oxalic acid were determined. The base of the leaf surrounds the stem. In April 2016, about 90% of the S. asper plants infesting a pear orchard had symptomatic with black spots densely distributed on the leaves and stems in D … Sonchus arvensis: Margins are spiny and wavy, white mid-vein, large round basal lobes clasping - curled downward, often dark green and glossy. 2: 794. Abstract. Sonchus asper. Sonchus oleraceushas hollow stems that exude latex, if damaged. The plant is not frost tender and flowers from June to August. Its edible leaves make a palatable and nutritious leaf vegetable. The upper leaves are less lobed but have spiny edges. Native Range: Eurasia Invasive range: In every US State and most of Canada Habitat: Common in disturbed sites, also found in pastures, hay fields, dunes, riparian areas, orchards, and wetlands. It is not frost tender. Moderate pest factor. Apart from the species’ prevailing entire-leaved name variety (var. One plant will produce several flat-topped arrays of flower heads, each head containing numerous yellow ray flowers but no disc flowers. Both the leaves and stems contain a milky solution. Spiny Sowthistle (Sonchus asper) is very similar in appearance, however this species has rounded lobes that clasp the stem whereas annual sowthistle has distinctly pointed lobes. Sonchus asper is an annual or biennial herb sometimes reaching a height of 200 cm. Tesis, Universidad Mayor San Simón, Cochabamba, Marticorena, C. & M. Quezada. Sonchus oleraceus is an annual herb, upto 4 ft. in height. Leaves and stem: Upper leaves are up to 6 inches long with a rounded, widely lobed (auriculate) base semi-clasping the stem. It has a short taproot, and deeply lobed leaves. asper Linnaeus, Sp. The foliage contains a milky latex. It is in flower from June to August, and the seeds ripen from July to September. 1985. They are distributed by the wind. Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne de Normandie 25: 1–335. perennial sowthistle. It can bolt upward and form flowerheads very quickly during the summer. Leaves are up to 10 inches long and 3½ inches across, but more commonly they are about half this size or less. The stems have rather conspicuous longitudinal veins and are usually hairless, although occasionally the upper stems and flowering stalks have a few hairs. Analyses of the nutritional composition of tender leaves of three species of Sonchus ( S . with spiny leaves and yellow flowers resembling those of the dandelion. Large basal leaves and smaller, curved upper leaves have soft, very spiny teeth. Th… They tend to be crowded on the stem. asper L, S oleraceus L and S tenerrimus L) from different locations in the south east of Spain were carried out. Sonchus asper (Linnaeus) Hill, Herb. Sonchus asper: basal auricles of leaves rounded and stalks to flower heads with abundant stipitate glands (vs. S. oleraceus, with basal auricles of leaves +/- triangular and stalks to flower heads without stipitate glands or these few and sparse). Leaves. The seeds ripen from July to September. Sonchus asper is a ANNUAL growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in). The leaves and stems emit a milky sap when cut. Sonchus oleraceus L was named by Carolus Linnaeus in 1753 in his "Species Plantarum." It blooms from late spring through early fall and reproduces by means of seeds. Its edible leaves make a palatable and nutritious leaf vegetable. On shorter plants, they are rather crowded together on the stems, even where the composite flowers occur. The stems are dull green or reddish green, round, and smooth. Sonchus asper, or Prickly Sowthistle, is a spring or summer annual herbaceous wildflower, with spiney leaves and yellow flowers and is often considered a weed because of its aggressive spread. Sonchus asper is a major problem in winter crops and in tillage systems throughout southern Australia, South-East Queensland and Northern New South Wales. The upper stems terminate in clusters of 1 to 5 composite flowers on rather short stalks. Lower leaves are up to 10 inches long and 3½ inches wide, more spatula shaped with deeper lobes. NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to Stems are five angled and hollow and dark-green in color and emit a milky sap when cut. Also, the leaf margins of spiny sowthistle are much more spiny or prickly than those of annual sowthistle. prickly sowthistle. Females lay eggs on the undersides of leaves, forming up to 270 galls/plant [16]. Identifying Characteristics. Grows yellow flowers resembling dandelions … The base of the leaf surrounds the stem. [7][8][9][10][11], It is found in cultivated soil, pastures, roadsides, edges of yards, vacant lots, construction sites, waste areas and in grasslands. The base of each flower is covered with dull green bracts and is it rather short. Spiny sowthistle is primarily a weed of pastures, hay fields, landscapes and roadsides. An annual that may reach as much as 6 feet in height with bluish-green leaves and stems that emit a milky sap when cut. Spiny sowthistle is primarily a weed of landscapes, winter small grains, pastures, hay fields, orchards, and roadsides. Sonchus asper is an annual herb considered native to Europe, Africa and Asia that has … They are respectfully the common sow thistle, the spiny sow thistle and the field sow thistle. Sonchus species have a long record of being used as leafy vegetables in many parts of the world. Sonchus oleraceus: basal auricles of leaves +/- triangular and stalks to flower heads without stipitate glands or these few and sparse (vs. S. asper, with basal auricles of leaves rounded and stalks to flower heads with abundant stipitate glands). The stems are hollow and contain hair on only the lower portion. Read our Commitment to Diversity | Read our Privacy Statement. asper), the unevenly large-toothed and even lobe-leaved var. Resembles Sonchus asper but has generally softer, less deeply divided leaves, larger cypselas and larger pollen grains. Prickly Sowthistle (Sonchus asper) Description: This plant is a spring or summer annual (usually the former) that becomes 1-3' tall, branching sparingly in the upper half. Stem: Stem Color: Green Purple/Lavender Stem Is Aromatic: No Stem Form: Straight Stem Surface: Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Prickly Sowthistle typically grows in full sun, moist to slightly dry conditions, and different kinds of soil, including loam, clay-loam, and shallow gravelly soil. STATUS IN HAWAI’I: Alien. "Sonchus" is the Greek name for sow thistle and … It is an herbaceous annual or winter annual plant that contains white sticky latex with short taproot which is bushy with many lateral roots. PREPARATION OF MEDICINE: Infused or decocted. 1: 47. Sonchus asper . form a strategic partnership called N.C. The leaves are bluish-green, simple, lanceolate, with wavy and sometimes lobed margins, covered in spines on both the margins and beneath. Sonchus oleraceus has short taproot and deeply lobed leaves. It can be distinguished from Sonchus asper and Sonchus hydrophilus in that they both have stiff and leathery leaves, mostly smooth achenes (fruit) with ribs that are rough to the touch or with hairs. The stems are dark green in color (sometimes tinted with a reddish-purple tinge). Prickly Sowthistle typically grows in full sun, moist to slightly dry conditions, and different kinds of soil, including loam, clay-loam, and shallow gravelly soil. The achenes are flat, spindle-shaped, hairless, and have several longitudinal ribs. 2. Basal and lower stem leaves extremely variable, obovate, spatulate, or elliptic, 7-13 × 2-5 cm, undivided or ± irregularly pinnatisect, glabrous, adaxially dark green and ± glossy, base attenuate and ± auriculate, margin usually densely spinulosely dentate, apex acute, acuminate, or obtuse; lateral lobes ± triangular, semiorbicular, or elliptic. Sonchus asper leaf and stem The three common ones are Sonchus oleraceus, (SON-kus oh-ler-AY-see-us) Sonchus Asper (SON-kus ASS-pur) and Sonchus arvensis (SON-kus ar-VEN-sis.) Sonchus has the questionable distinction of being considered one of the world’s worst weeds, a pest in more than 55 countries. The leaves form basal and are deeply lobed. Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Chile. 1753. It is often found in lawns, waste places, and roadsides.The size of this plant varies depending on the moisture and fertility of the soil. Each lower leaf has deep triangular lobes. spiny sowthistle. These are S. arvensis, perennial sow thistle, and the two annual species S. oleraceus, common sow thistle, and S. asper, prickly sow thistle. Photo about Sonchus asper flower plant leaves. Sonchus asper, or Prickly Sowthistle, is a spring or summer annual herbaceous wildflower, with spiney leaves and yellow flowers and is often considered a weed because of its aggressive spread. Spiny Sowthistle in Virginia Tech Weed Identification Guide, WeedAlert.com's article on the Spiny Sowthistle, photo of herbarium specimen at Missouri Botanical Garden, collected in Madagascar in 1932, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sonchus_asper&oldid=992247265, Short description is different from Wikidata, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 December 2020, at 07:30. It is found throughout the United States. Sonchus oleraceus is a BIENNIAL growing to 1 m (3ft 3in). Leaves have soft, spiny toothed edges that may be wavy, are hairless, mostly with small rounded lobes at the base that clasp the stem. 1769. Each flower is about 2/3 inch across when fully open, consisting of numerous yellow ray florets. Sonchus asper, the prickly sow-thistle,[2] rough milk thistle,[3] spiny sowthistle,[4] sharp-fringed sow thistle, or spiny-leaved sow thistle, is a widespread plant in the dandelion tribe within the daisy family. Sonchus asper. Upright, smooth, stems branched sparsely above. All leaves are coarsely toothed with soft spines and are shiny waxy green on the upper surface. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. Annuals or biennials, 10–120(–200+) cm. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), disability, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, and veteran status. In Hawai’i, however, I have never seen it out of control. with spiny leaves and yellow flowers resembling those of the dandelion. Description: Leaves are lanceolate, with wavy margins, covered in spines on both the margins and beneath, and bluish-green in color. It is in flower from June to August, and the seeds ripen from July to September. It has also become naturalized on other continents and is regarded as a noxious, invasive weed in many places. Spiny Sow Thistle (Sonchus asper): An annual that has bluish-green leaves and stems that emit a milky sap when cut. One plant will produce several flat-topped arrays of flower heads, each head containing numerous yellow ray flowers but no disc flowers. Depending on the local form of the plant, these leaves may be pinnatifid, or they may lack significant lobes along the margins, in which case they are broadly lanceolate or oblanceolate. It is found throughout the United States. Annual sowthistle is a summer annual plant which can grow up to 5 feet in height. The seeds spread by wind and water and the plant can tend to take over a site. Leaves are lanceolate to oblanceolate in shape, hairless and dark green in color with pale white to purple veins. The leaves are bluish-green, simple, lanceolate, with wavy and sometimes lobed margins, covered in spines on both the margins and beneath. Spiny-leaf sow-thistle, laiteron rude Sonchus oleraceus Linnaeus var. [5][6], Sonchus asper is native to Europe, North Africa, and western Asia. Sonchus asper is an annual or biennial herb sometimes reaching a height of 200 cm. Leaves are up to 8 inches long and 2¼ inches across, becoming smaller and more sparse up the central stem. This plant spreads by reseeding itself. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees, flies. Les Composées de Madagascar. The leaves and stems emit a milky sap when cut. Sonchus oleraceus has hollow stems that exude latex (whitish milk) if damaged. Spiny sowthistle is a winter annual that is actually in the sunflower family and not a true thistle. 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With dull green bracts and is pollinated by Bees, hoverflies or more hours of direct sunlight day!, hoverflies the common sow thistle in English height with bluish-green leaves and stems contain a milky when... Being used as leafy vegetables in many parts of the world ’ S weeds! Flower from June to August, and the field sow thistle in English color and a... Pollen grains spiny edges for: light ( sandy ), medium ( loamy and... All leaves are up to 10 inches long and 3½ inches wide, more spatula shaped with deeper.. Has bluish-green leaves and stems emit a milky sap when cut our Commitment to Diversity | read Commitment! Smaller and more sparse up the central stem likely to be entire or have lobes.