[66] This led to decades of military and political power struggles between Tsangpa dynasty forces and others across central Tibet. The Chinese were disappointed when he did not die like his predecessors, and he was to live long enough to give them much more cause for regret. [163], In any case, the Kangxi Emperor took full advantage of having Kelzang Gyatso under Qing control at Kumbum after other Mongols from the Dzungar tribes led by Tsewang Rabtan who was related to his supposed ally Lhazang Khan, deceived and betrayed the latter by invading Tibet and capturing Lhasa in 1717. [117] 'The Great Fifth' became the temporal ruler of Tibet in 1642 and from then on the rule of the Dalai Lama lineage over some, all or most of Tibet lasted with few breaks for the next 317 years, until 1959, when the 14th Dalai Lama fled to India. The Dalai Lama: What He Means for Tibetans Today: Roundtable before the Congressional-Executive Commission on China, One Hundred Twelfth Congress, First Session, 13 July 2011. Many Tibetans think that this was done at the time when the young [Dalai Lama] made his ritual visit to the Lake Lhamtso. However, Güshi Khan's other eight sons had settled in Amdo but fought amongst themselves over territory so the Fifth Dalai Lama sent governors to rule them in 1656 and 1659, thereby bringing Amdo and thus the whole of Greater Tibet under his personal rule and Gelugpa control. For 113 years, therefore, supreme authority in Tibet was in the hands of a Lama Regent, except for about two years when a lay noble held office and for short periods of nominal rule by the 11th and 12th Dalai Lamas. The Kangxi Emperor concurred with them, after sending investigators, initially declining to recognize Yeshe Gyatso. While the meta has shifted over the years, the current incarnation of classes - including the newer Death Knight and Monk classes has paved the way for a more interesting debate than ever before. 52. [267] In response to the possibility that the PRC might attempt to choose his successor, the Dalai Lama said he would not be reborn in a country controlled by the People's Republic of China or any other country which is not free. One subject of contention among WoW neophytes and old hands alike has been its class system. Directed by Pan Nalin. [9] In 1913, several Tibetan representatives including Agvan Dorzhiev signed a treaty between Tibet and Mongolia, proclaiming mutual recognition and their independence from China, however the legitimacy of the treaty and declared independence of Tibet was rejected by both the Republic of China and the current People's Republic of China. It first came to existence 10,000 years before the main story, as the result of a permanent fusion between Wan - the first man to not only possess the power of more than one element, but the first human bender as well - and Raava, … 2005. This caused Sonam Rabten who became the 5th Dalai Lama's changdzo or manager,[125] to seek more active Mongol patronage and military assistance for the Gelugpa while the Fifth was still a boy. [98], The Third Dalai Lama, Sonam Gyatso (1543–1588) was born in Tolung, near Lhasa,[99] It was further felt that it was not the Dalai Lama's decision to reincarnate. At the request of the Ningxia Governor he had been teaching large gatherings of people from East Turkestan, Mongolia and nearby areas of China, with interpreters provided by the governor for each language. [126][132] Sonam Rabten deviously went behind his master's back to encourage Güshi Khan, to facilitate his plans and to ensure the attacks took place;[123] for this defiance of his master's wishes, Rabten was severely rebuked by the 5th Dalai Lama. [94] Later, a group consisting of the three major servants of Dalai Lama, eminent officials,[who?] [11][12] The Dalai Lamas headed the Tibetan government afterwards despite that, until 1951. [244][245], In October 2020, he stated that he did not support Tibetan independence and hoped to visit China as a Nobel Prize winner. As proposed by Sonam Gyatso, Altan Khan sponsored the building of Thegchen Chonkhor Monastery at the site of Sonam Gyatso's open-air teachings given to the whole Mongol population. It provides an overview of Tibetan Buddhism and the messages from its’ leader the Dalia Lama. [114][115] From this time Buddhism spread rapidly across Mongolia[112] and soon the Gelugpa had won the spiritual allegiance of most of the Mongolian tribes. The circumstances are such that it is very likely that some, if not all, were poisoned, either by loyal Tibetans for being Chinese-appointed impostors, or by the Chinese for not being properly manageable. [120] So, in 1620, Mongol troops allied to the Gelugpa who had camped outside Lhasa suddenly attacked and destroyed the two Tsangpa camps and drove them out of Lhasa, enabling the Dalai Lama to be brought out of hiding and publicly enthroned there in 1622. [225] Shetra died in 1864 and the Kashag re-assumed power. [3] The 14th and current Dalai Lama is Tenzin Gyatso, who lives as a refugee in India. [42], Gendun Drup (1391–1474), a disciple of the founder Je Tsongkapa,[43] was the ordination name of the monk who came to be known as the 'First Dalai Lama', but only from 104 years after he died. [6] The Dalai Lama was an important figure of the Geluk tradition, which was politically and numerically dominant in Central Tibet, but his religious authority went beyond sectarian boundaries. "[27], According to the 14th Dalai Lama, long ago Avalokiteśvara had promised the Buddha to guide and protect the Tibetan people and in the late Middle Ages, his master plan to fulfill this promise was the stage-by-stage establishment of the Dalai Lama theocracy in Tibet. He pretended the Dalai Lama was in retreat and ruled on his behalf, secretly selecting the 6th Dalai Lama and presenting him as someone else. These enemies included other Mongol tribes who supported the Tsangpas, the Tsangpa themselves and their Bönpo allies in Kham who had also opposed and persecuted Gelugpas. The life and deeds of the 13th Dalai Lama [in successfully upholding de facto Tibetan independence from China from 1912 to 1950] serve as the living proof of this argument, he points out. [120] Firstly, the Tsangpa dynasty, rulers of Central Tibet from Shigatse, supporters of the Karmapa school and rivals to the Gelugpa, forbade the search for his incarnation. [145] Furthermore, when he arrived back in Tibet, he discarded the emperor's famous golden seal and made a new one for important state usage, writing in his autobiography: "Leaving out the Chinese characters that were on the seal given by the emperor, a new seal was carved for stamping documents that dealt with territorial issues. [51] 'Pema Dorje' (1391–1474), the boy who was to become the first in the line, was born in a cattle pen[52] in Shabtod, Tsang in 1391. ", "CIA Gave Aid to Tibetan Exiles in '60s, Files Show", "A look at the Dalai Lama's ridiculous Indian heart", "Buddhist group leading global anti-Dalai Lama protests disbands", 11th Panchen Lama alive, receiving education: Dalai Lama, Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama quarrel: The way for rapprochement with China, "The Dalai Lama, President Obama and Pope Francis at Highest Levels of Popularity in U.S. and Five Largest European Countries", "The Next Dalai Lama: China has a choice", "Photos of Dalai Lama Banned in Monasteries Across Tibet – tribunedigital-chicagotribune", "Review: Man of Peace – The Illustrated Story of the Dalai Lama of Tibet", "1959 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Community Leadership – Dalai Lama", "Besuch S. H. des Dalai Lama in Tübingen und Stuttgart im Juni 1988", "Presentation Speech by Egil Aarvik, Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee", "Dalai Lama named Emory distinguished professor", "A Hubbub Over a Visit by the Dalai Lama? [a]It has sometimes been suggested that this state of affairs was brought about by the Ambans—the Imperial Residents in Tibet—because it would be easier to control the Tibet through a Regent than when a Dalai Lama, with his absolute power, was at the head of the government. [34] By the great Jonangpa master Bodong Chokley Namgyal[64] he was accorded the honorary title Tamchey Khyenpa meaning "The Omniscient One", an appellation that was later assigned to all Dalai Lama incarnations. [162] According to Mullin, however, the emperor's support came from genuine spiritual recognition and respect rather than being politically motivated. [52] He rose to become Abbot of Drepung, the greatest Gelugpa monastery, outside Lhasa. After 16 years of study as a novice monk, in 1702 in his 20th year he rejected full ordination and gave up his monk's robes and monastic life, preferring the lifestyle of a layman. [48], Tutored personally by the abbot he made rapid progress and from 1492 at 17 he was requested to teach all over Tsang, where thousands gathered to listen and give obeisance, including senior scholars and abbots. [95] He attracted many students and disciples 'from Kashmir to China'[94] as well as major patrons and disciples such as Gongma Nangso Donyopa of Droda who built a monastery at Zhekar Dzong in his honour and invited him to name it and be its spiritual guide. By 1862 this led to a coup by Wangchuk Shetra, a minister whom the Regent had banished for conspiring against him. For the Qing, although the Dalai Lama was not required to kowtow to the emperor, who rose from his throne and advanced 30 feet to meet him, the significance of the visit was that of nominal political submission by the Dalai Lama since Inner Asian heads of state did not travel to meet each other but sent envoys. [214] After 15 years of intensive studies and failing health he died, in 1837, at the age of 20 or 21. [236][237], With the aim of launching guerrilla operations against the Chinese, the Central Intelligence Agency funded the Dalai Lama's administration with US$1.7 million a year in the 1960s. [272], 'Greater Tibet' as claimed by exiled groups, Avalokiteśvara's "Dalai Lama master plan". Intending to empower the common people he planned to institute political and economic reforms to share the nation's wealth more equitably. [35] The 3rd built on his predecessors' fame by becoming Abbot of the two great monasteries of Drepung and Sera. [159], In 1708, in accordance with an indication given by the 6th Dalai Lama when quitting Lhasa a child called Kelzang Gyatso had been born at Lithang in eastern Tibet who was soon claimed by local Tibetans to be his incarnation. "You can't impose an Imam, an Archbishop, saints, any religion...you can't politically impose these things on people", said Wangdi. [81], Gendun Gyatso's popularity in Ü-Tsang grew as he went on pilgrimage, travelling, teaching and studying from masters such as the adept Khedrup Norzang Gyatso in the Olklha mountains. will collect the boy and his family and travel to Lhasa, where the boy would be taken, usually to Drepung Monastery, to study the Buddhist sutra in preparation for assuming the role of spiritual leader of Tibet. Buddhism . Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet, all high monks must be approved by the government, "Relentless: The Dalai Lama's Heart of Steel", "At Lhasa, Tibetans still pray for Dalai Lama's return", "Introduction to The Potala Palace, Jokhang Temple and Norbulingka, Tibet", "The Second Tsemonling, Ngawang Jampel Tsultrim Gyatso", "The Dalai Lama, President Obama and Pope Francis at Highest Levels of Popularity in U.S. and Five Largest European Countries", "Dalai Lama Group Says It Got Money From C.I.A. [260][261] In 1995, the Dalai Lama chose to proceed with the selection of the 11th reincarnation of the Panchen Lama without the use of the Golden Urn, while the Chinese government insisted that it must be used. He did recognize him in 1710, however, after sending a Qing official party to assist Lhazang in 'restoring order'; these were the first Chinese representatives of any sort to officiate in Tibet. Although he had served for some years as Tashilhunpo's abbot, he therefore moved to central Tibet, where he was invited to Drepung and where his reputation as a brilliant young teacher quickly grew. [115] Further on, he was asked to adjudicate on border disputes between Mongolia and China. [4][5], Since the time of the 5th Dalai Lama in the 17th century, his personage has always been a symbol of unification of the state of Tibet, where he has represented Buddhist values and traditions. [203][204] Tibetan historian Nyima Gyaincain and Wang Jiawei point out that the 9th Dalai Lama was allowed to use the seal of authority given to the late 8th Dalai Lama by the Emperor of China[205], His second Regent Demo Tulku was the biographer of the 8th and 9th Dalai Lamas and though the 9th died at the age of 9 his biography is as lengthy as those of many of the early Dalai Lamas. [223], According to Smith, however, during Trinley Gyatso's minority, the Regent was deposed in 1862 for abuse of authority and closeness with China, by an alliance of monks and officials called Gandre Drungche (Ganden and Drepung Monks Assembly); this body then ruled Tibet for ten years until dissolved, when a National Assembly of monks and officials called the Tsongdu was created and took over. Under his leadership, the sect went on growing in size and influence[80] and with its appeal of simplicity, devotion and austerity its lamas were asked to mediate in disputes between other rivals. Tibet was, to them, exile from the urbanity and culture of Peking; and so far from dominating the Regents, the Ambans allowed themselves to be dominated. Tibetan historian Nyima Gyaincain points out that Desi Sangye Gyatso wanted to consolidate his personal status and power by not reporting the death of the fifth Dalai Lama to the Emperor of China, and also collude with the rebellion group of the Qing dynasty, Mongol Dzungar tribe in order to counter influence from another Mongol Khoshut tribe in Tibet. [18] Once there, in Kham, he founded two more great Gelugpa monasteries, the first in 1580 at Lithang where he left his representative before going on to Chamdo Monastery where he resided and was made Abbot. Both palaces are in Lhasa and approximately 3 km apart. 7) Tenzin Gyatso was formally recognized as the 14th Dalai Lama in November 1950, at the age of 15. [238] In 2001 the 14th Dalai Lama ceded his partial power over the government to an elected parliament of selected Tibetan exiles. The respected Reting Rinpoche was recalled once again to act as Regent and requested to lead the search for the next incarnation, the twelfth. [187][188], The Eighth Dalai Lama, Jamphel Gyatso was born in Tsang in 1758 and died aged 46 having taken little part in Tibetan politics, mostly leaving temporal matters to his regents and the ambans. Many could not believe that such an option could even be considered. His residence on the Temple Road in McLeod Ganj is called the Dalai Lama Temple and is visited by people from across the globe. [206] In 1793 under Manchu pressure Tibet had closed its borders to foreigners,[207][208] but in 1811 a British Sinologist, Thomas Manning became the first Englishman to visit Lhasa. His original goal was full independence for Tibet, but by the late 1980s he was seeking high-level autonomy instead. Just as Güshi Khan had done with the Fifth Dalai Lama, they therefore helped reconstitute the government with the Dalai Lama presiding over a Kashag of four Tibetans, reinvesting him with temporal power in addition to his already established spiritual leadership. Further he stated that Europe should receive, help and educate refugees but ultimately they should return to develop their home countries. [34] Soon recognised as an exceptionally gifted pupil, the abbot tutored him personally and took special interest in his progress. Then in 1705, he used the Sixth's escapades as an excuse to seize full control of Tibet. In the concept of republic, ethnic minorities are like Tibetans, The Mongols, Manchus, and Xinjiang Uyghurs, we can live in harmony".[246]. [95] [55] In 12 years he passed the 12 grades of monkhood and took the highest vows. [231][232][233] The 14th Dalai Lama had become the joint most popular world leader by 2013, (tied with Barack Obama), according to a poll conducted by Harris Interactive of New York, which sampled public opinion in the US and six major European countries. [59] Tashilhunpo, 'Mountain of Blessings', became the fourth great Gelugpa monastery in Tibet, after Ganden, Drepung and Sera had all been founded in Tsongkhapa's time. Smith makes no mention of Shetra or Dondrup acting as usurpers and despots in this period. In any case, he mainly lived a quiet and unassuming life as a devoted and studious monk, uninvolved in the kind of dramas that had surrounded his predecessors. Thubten Jigme Norbu, the elder brother of the 14th Dalai Lama, described these unfortunate events as follows, although there are few, if any, indications that any of the four were said to be 'Chinese-appointed imposters': It is perhaps more than a coincidence that between the seventh and the thirteenth holders of that office, only one reached his majority. The 11th and 12th were each enthroned but died soon after being invested with power. [44] It's the name given to a well-known Nepalese monk and teacher of the Mahayana tradition. In fact, this text is said to have laid the foundation for the Tibetans' later identification of the Dalai Lamas as incarnations of Avalokiteśvara. [262], In September 2007, the Chinese government said all high monks must be approved by the government, which would include the selection of the 15th Dalai Lama after the death of Tenzin Gyatso. [110] At the second invitation, in 1577–78 Sonam Gyatso travelled 1,500 miles to Mongolia to see him. [228] According to most Western journalistic sources[229][230] he was born into a humble family of farmers as one of 16 children. When Lhazang was requested by the Tibetans to leave Lhasa politics to them and to retire to Kokonor like his predecessors, he quit the city, but only to gather his armies in order to return, capture Lhasa militarily and assume full political control of Tibet. He studied at Drepung and became its abbot but being a non-Tibetan he met with opposition from some Tibetans, especially the Karma Kagyu who felt their position was threatened by these emerging events; there were several attempts to remove him from power. These included provisions to curb excessive demands on peasants for provisions by the monasteries and tax evasion by the nobles, setting up an independent police force, the abolition of the death penalty, extension of secular education, and the provision of electricity throughout the city of Lhasa in the 1920s. The same goes for the great increase in the number of foreign visitors thronging Lhasa during the period as well as for the number of inventions and institutions that are attributed to the 'Great Fifth', as the Tibetans refer to him. [123] However, in 1618 Sonam Rabten, the former attendant of the 4th Dalai Lama who had become the Ganden Phodrang treasurer, secretly identified the child,[124] who had been born to the noble Zahor family at Tagtse castle, south of Lhasa. [152][153], In 1703 Güshi Khan's ruling grandson Tenzin Wangchuk Khan was murdered by his brother Lhazang Khan who usurped the Khoshut's Tibetan throne, but unlike his four predecessors he started interfering directly in Tibetan affairs in Lhasa; he opposed the Fifth Dalai Lama's regent, Desi Sangye Gyatso for his deceptions and in the same year, with the support of the Kangxi Emperor, he forced him out of office. Jesus (c. 4 BC – AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. Considered to be 'the first Chinese scholar in Europe'[209] he stayed five months and gave enthusiastic accounts in his journal of his regular meetings with the Ninth Dalai Lama whom he found fascinating: "beautiful, elegant, refined, intelligent, and entirely self-possessed, even at the age of six". Considering what occurred in Lhasa after the Chinese, Stein (1972), p. 138–139|quote=the Dalai Lama is ... a link in the chain that starts in history and leads back through legend to a deity in mythical times. '"[202], Born in Kham in 1805/6 amidst the usual miraculous signs the Ninth Dalai Lama, Lungtok Gyatso was appointed by the 7th Panchen Lama's search team at the age of two and enthroned in the Potala in 1808 at an impressive ceremony attended by representatives from China, Mongolia, Nepal and Bhutan. [186] Construction of the Norbulingka, the 'Summer Palace' of the Dalai Lamas in Lhasa was also started during Kelzang Gyatso's reign. [36] After being given the Mongolian name 'Dalai',[37] he returned to Tibet to found the great monasteries of Lithang in Kham, eastern Tibet and Kumbum in Amdo, north-eastern Tibet. On the contrary, he built a Tibetan army and started conspiring with the Dzungars to rid Tibet of Qing influence. [118], For a lifetime of only 45 years, his accomplishments were impressive and some of the most important ones were due to his relationship with Altan Khan. Returning to Tashilhunpo[70] he died 'in a blaze of glory, recognised as having attained Buddhahood'. ", "Dalai Lama says Tibet wants to remain part of China", "We want to stay within China: His Holiness the Dalai Lama of Tibet", "Dalai Lama says 'Europe belongs to Europeans, "Exclusive: Dalai Lama contemplates Chinese gambit after his death", "Dalai Lama contemplates Chinese gambit after his death", "The Dalai Lama emphasizes that he does not support Tibetan independence and hopes to visit China as a Nobel Prize winner", "Dispatches from the Tibetan Front: Dharamshala, India,", "China's Tensions With Dalai Lama Spill into the Afterlife", "Dalai Lama's confirmation of reincarnation", "China Says It Will Decide Who the Dalai Lama Shall Be Reincarnated As", "China says boy picked by Dalai Lama now a college graduate", "Reincarnation of living Buddha needs gov't approval", "Dalai Lama challenges China – with a referendum on reincarnation", "Dalai's reincarnation will not be found under Chinese control", Dalai Lama may forgo death before reincarnation, A Reader's Guide to the Works of the Dalai Lama (Shambhala Publications), Jigdral Yeshe Dorje (2nd Dudjom Rinpoche), Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna, Self-immolation protests by Tibetans in China, Convention Between Great Britain and China Respecting Tibet (1906), Treaty of friendship and alliance with Mongolia (1913), Sino-Indian Trade Agreement over Tibetan Border (1954), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dalai_Lama&oldid=1008364385, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Standard Tibetan-language text, Articles with text in Mongolian languages, Articles containing Mongolian-language text, Articles lacking reliable references from November 2017, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from May 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 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